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Translation variation across genetic backgrounds reveals a post-transcriptional buffering signature in yeast.
Elie M Teyssonniere, Yuichi Shichino, Mari Mito, Anne Friedrich, Shintaro Iwasaki, Joseph Schacherer.
Nucleic Acids Research. 2024. doi:10.1093/nar/gkae030

Gene expression is known to vary among individuals, and this variability can impact the phenotypic diversity observed in natural populations. While the transcriptome and proteome have been extensively studied, little is known about the translation process itself. Here, we therefore performed ribosome and transcriptomic profiling on a genetically and ecologically diverse set of natural isolates of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast. Interestingly, we found that the Euclidean distances between each profile and the expression fold changes in each pairwise isolate comparison were higher at the transcriptomic level. This observation clearly indicates that the transcriptional variation observed in the different isolates is buffered through a phenomenon known as post-transcriptional buffering at the translation level. Furthermore, this phenomenon seemed to have a specific signature by preferentially affecting essential genes as well as genes involved in complex-forming proteins, and low transcribed genes. We also explored the translation of the S. cerevisiae pangenome and found that the accessory genes related to introgression events displayed similar transcription and translation levels as the core genome. By contrast, genes acquired through horizontal gene transfer events tended to be less efficiently translated. Together, our results highlight both the extent and signature of the post-transcriptional buffering.